Mining is the extraction of minerals and other materials from the interior of the earth.
• It has immense importance in today’s world as the household or industries depend on the minerals available on the planet.
• There are various types of mining: Surface mining (for minerals found close to the surface of the earth). It can be further divided into three types: open cast, strip, alluvial.
• Open cast: Digging of the materials found at the surface of the earth.
• Strip: Involves removing of long strips of soil and rock and other weathered material.
• Alluvial: Extraction of minerals by dredging from the beds of rivers. (Tin and gold).
• Quarrying: It is another type of mining used for extracting building materials like Limestone.
• Underground (Sub surface) mining: Ores are extracted from greater depths beneath the surface of the earth. This kind of mining is expensive as well as risky. Ex. Coal
• Drilling: It is the extraction of oil and petroleum.
• There are other types of mining like contour mining, highwall mining, etc.
• There are some side effects of mining like soil erosion, water erosion, and air pollution. So mining areas after work must not be left abandoned.
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