Forest is the large area dominated by trees. It is home to many animal and plant species. It contains many tree species within a small area. Biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities.
Different type of forests in India:
*Tropical Evergreen Forests
*Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests
*Tropical Deciduous Forests
*Tropical Thorn Forests
*Littoral and Swamp Forests
1. Tropical Evergreen Forest: These forests are found in the warm and humid areas. They have an average rainfall of over 250 cm and temperature ranges above 25 degree Celsius. Mahogany, Jamun, Bamboo and Canes are found in these forests.
2. Tropical Semi- Evergreen Forest: These are less dense compared to tropical wet evergreen forests. They have an average rainfall ranges between 200-250 cm. Hollock, Kail and White celar are important species found in these forests.
3. Tropical Deciduous Forest: These are also known as Monsoon Forests. They have an average rainfall ranges between 70-200 cm and temperature is about 25 degree Celsius. On the basis of availability of water, these are further divided into following-
*The moist deciduous forests
*The dry deciduous forests
4. Tropical Thorn Forests: These have widely scattered vegetation of shrubs, grasses and trees with height less than 10 m. These forests have rainfall below 70 degree Celsius and temperature ranges between 25- 30 degree Celsius.
5. Montane Forest: These forests are found in mountain areas. These forests cover about 900 million hectares of the world’s land surface, constituting 20 % of the world’s forest cover.
6. Mangrove Forest: These forests are also known as littoral and swamp forest. They are found near flood plains, freshwater lakes, wetlands and estuaries.
Forest Conservation in India: It is mainly done to meet the rising demands and to save from environmental hazards. Many movements were done to protect the forest such as Chipko movement, Appiko movement. It is done because forest produces mass amount of oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis and forests are home to many animals, birds and insects.
The first forest policy in India was adopted in 1894. A new forest policy was declared in 1954 specifying that there should be 33% part of land for forest. In 1988, a new forest policy was declared with three objectives and they are:
*Conservation of plants and wildlife
*To meet out the basic needs of the common people.
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