Q. 6

Describe the trade and commerce in Greater India.

Answer :


a) STATUS: In ancient days, India was a developed country, whose traders would cross shores and kingdoms to sell the fine Indian goods in foreign markets. Indian villages were self-sufficient, and the country prided in being called the GOLDEN BIRD.

b) TRADE ROUTES: India traded through land and sea. China, Tibet, Arabia and Persia were prominent markets where goods travelled through land. Sri Lanka, Java and Sumatra were connected through the sea ports of Southern and Eastern India.

c) IMPORTS: Foreign traders also came to India with a variety of goods. This included gold, silver, ruby and diamond ornaments. Notably, we imported wine from western countries, silk from China, and wool from Nepal

d) EXPORTS: These goods were exchanged for Indian cotton, tobacco and spices. We sent clove and incensed good to Sri Lanka, and exported pearls to the larger market.

e) ADMINISTRATION: Trade relations were well-developed and overlooked by SARTHAWAH.


Internal trade was carried out through both land and waterways. Major rivers, such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Krishna and Kaveri, were used to transfer goods laden on huge wooden boats.


a) In the earlier days, barter system was prevalent.

b) However, soon coins came in to existence. Gold coins (Nishk), silver coins (Dharan) and copper coins (Mashak, Kakni) were used for business transactions. This was regulated by the ruling kingdom.

c) Trade unions called Shrenis were established, who also performed the role of modern banks.

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