Zamindars were the class of people who lived in the countryside and were not directly involved in the agricultural production. They were the land proper tiers who enjoyed certain social and economical privileges due to their superior status in rural areas.
Zamindars status were elevated because of their caste and also, that they performed certain activities like khidmat on behalf of state. Zamindars had extensive private property that they used for for their own private use and was maintained by service labour. Zamindars were also, allowed to collect revenue on behalf of state and for which they were compensated financially. The zamindars slowly consolidated land by colonising new lands and transferring rights, by order of state or by purchase. This prevented people from lower castes to be the part of the Zamindaris-clan. For example: Rajputs and Jats adopted these ways to consolidate their control over vast swathes of land. They also, helped in colonizing the lands by providing cultivators with means of cultivation like through cash loans. The bying and selling of land by zamindars also, accelerated the monetisation in the countryside. They also, sold the produce from their pricate lands and they often set up markets were peasants also came to sell their goods.
Apart from the civilised regions of northern and north-western, the eastern regions, central and northern India (regions like Indo-Nepal) were covered with dense forests and scrublands. The forest dwellers called jangli were not people who were not civilise but the people whose livelihood were dependent on forest. They depend on forest for producing food and shelter by hunting and gathering forest produce. They used to shift from one place to another for agricultural activities. These activities depended upon the seasons like for Bhils spring was reserved for collecting forest produce, summer for fishing, monsoons for cultivation, and autumn and winter were reserved for hunting. This sequence caused mobility which was a distinctive feature of these tribes living in forests.
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