Q. 264.4( 9 Votes )
Describe the rela
Relation between State and Bhakti Tradition:
I. The initial Bhakti movement was launched under the leadership of Alvars and Nayanars. The Alvars were the disciples of Lord Vishnu whereas the Nayanars were the devotees of Lord Shiva. They settled at one place and roamed in the nearby areas. They recited hymns in praise of their idol in Tamil language.
II. During their travels, the Alvars and Nayanars declared some sacred places as the abode of their respective deities. Later on large temples were constructed on these places and all these places became the centres of pilgrimage.
III. The central point of the Tamil devotional creations was their opposition to Buddhism and Jainism. This feeling of opposition is more distinct in the creations of the saints belonging to the Nayanar saints. According to the historians, the main reason for their opposition was that there was a competition between different religious communities to seek state patronage.
IV. The powerful Chola rulers supported the Brahmanical and Bhakti tradition. They donated land for the construction of temples dedicated to Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva.
V. The vast and imposing temples of Lord Shiva in Chidambram, Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram were built with the help of the Chola rulers.
VI. The Alvar and Nayanar saints were honored by the Vallal peasants. Even the rulers also tried to seek their help and patronage. For example, the Chola rulers claimed to get the divine support. They also got built vast and magnificent temples to expose their grandeur and authority. These temples had statues made of stone and metal.
VII. An edict of 945 AD mentioned that a Chola ruler Parantak-I got built the metal statues of saint poet Sambandar and Sundrar. He got them installed in the Shiva temple
VIII. The temples of North India especially emphasize the worship of Vishnu and Shiva. All these temples were basically built with the help of the rulers.
Relation between Sufi Saints and State:
I. Major characteristic of the Chishti community was its simple and disciplined life. They emphasized to remain away from the mundane authority. But it did not mean to keep aloof from the political power. The Chishtis accepted all the donations made by the royal rulers. However they themselves never demanded such gifts or donations. The Sultans gave khanqahs land in donation. Many trusts were set up regarding grants, gifts and donations.
II. The Chishtis accepted donation both in cash and kind. But they never accumulated donations. They spent them on immediate requirements like food, clothes, living quarters and ritual necessities. It enhanced the moral authority of the Shaikhs who attracted people from all walks of life. They became very popular as they possessed piety, scholarship, miraculous powers and royal patronage. That is why, all the rulers tried to secure their support.
III. The Sultans knew that most of their subjects did not follow Islam. So when the Turks set up the Delhi Sultanate, they rejected the wish of the ulama to impose Shariat as state law. They expected opposition from their subjects as majority of them were non-Muslims. They depended on the Sufis who derived their authority directly from God. They did not depend on jurists to interpret the Shariat.
IV. There are many examples of conflict between the Sultans and the Sufis. Both wanted to assert their authority. Both emphasized the prostration and kissing of the feet. Because of the moral authority of the Chishtis, the kings often wanted their tombs to be in the vicinity of Rufi shrines. On the other hand, the Sufi Shaikhs were also addressed with high-sounding titles. For example, the disciples of Nizamuddin Auliya.
Guru Nanak (1469-1539) was one of the greatest religious innovators of all time and the founder of the Sikh religion. The basic fundamentals of Sikhism can be found and read in the Guru Granth Sahib. Where Guru Nanak laid the basis of a bias-free religion, preaching “God as One”. These teaching by Guru Nanak Still Hold Relevance and pave way for a judgment-free clean world.
One God: - Guru Nanak Ji said “I am neither Hindu nor Muslim, I am a follower of God”, which actually spoke about his belief in one God. In Sikhism, the god is omnipresent, shapeless, timeless, and sightless. (Nirankar, akar, alakh).
No Discrimination: - Guru Nanak ji was strongly against all artificially created divisions and all discrimination, both in word and deed. He said that the caste of a person is based on what he does. More so like what you sow, so shall you reap, the actions decide the true worth of a man.
Stay Away: - Guru Nanak Ji asked his followers to shun five evils of Ego, Anger, Greed, Attachment and Lust. They lead to illusion which eventually acts as roadblock towards attainment of salvation. In today’s times, these five evils or bad habits as we may term them prevent us from attaining our true self which is capable of miraculous feats otherwise.
Importance of Guru: - Guru Nanak ji laid great emphasis on having the importance of Guru in one’s life. He preached that salvation occurs not from pilgrimage, superstitions or rites etc., but through heart, spirit and soul. In other words, to attain knowledge, you seek a Guru, likewise to show humans the right path and to attain righteousness, one must seek the voice of God by reading the Holy Scripture.
Sewa is the Key to Humanity: - “In the midst of this world, do SEWA and you shall be given a place of honor in the Court of the Lord”. Help the needy and you shall be helped by the almighty in your times of crisis. Never hesitate to help others and welcome them in your company. One must do Sewa service at the place of worship too.
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