Answer :

Water quality, in India, has considerably declines thanks to the indiscriminate use by the increasing population and unending industrial expansion. The amount of pollutants has long surpassed the self-purifying capacity of the waters. In India, water pollutants from human activities are the major cause of water pollution, industrial activities being the most significant contributor.


Industries produce several undesirable by-products which are harmful for the environment. Yet, most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or lakes. Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters. Second, to industries, comes agriculture sector.


Various chemicals used in modern agriculture, including inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides are also pollution generating components. These are washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks, which then infiltrate the soil to reach the ground water. These pollutants have the potential to alter the soil nutrient content and render it infertile. Cultural activities, such as pilgrimage, religious fairs, tourism, etc. also causes water pollution.


Thus, water pollution continues to be a structural problem in India. This means that water pollution cannot be addressed without considering the restructuring of waste disposal policy of industries, in addition to efficient management of the use of chemicals in agriculture, and all the other sources of water pollution. Hence, the solution lies in an integrated approach and not in targeted cleaning drives.


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