By successfully violating the salt law by manufacturing salt at Dandi, Gandhiji initiated the Civil disobedience movement. Their motive was to violate the rules and restrictions put on them. They demanded were related to the general interest of the people, and other specific demands of different classes like Industrialists and peasants. The motive was to fulfil such demands so that people of all classes could relate to it and come together for the campaign
The main features of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 were as follows:
• According to the Civil Disobedience movement, people not only disapproved of co-operating but also asked to break the colonial laws.
• For example - in different parts of the country thousands of people broke the salt law by manufacturing salt and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories.
• As the intensity of the movement increased, the foreign clothes were boycotted and protested against the liquor shops.
• Peasants said no to the paying of revenue and chaukidari taxes, and villages officials resigned from their post.
• By going into the Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle, forest people violated many such rules.
When the developments happened during the Civil disobedience movement such as people broke the colonial laws, the foreign clothes were boycotted and protested against the liquor shops, Peasants said no to the paying of revenue and chaukidari taxes and villages officials resigned from their post and forest people violated rules by going into the Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle. It was regarded that this movement was important for making changes among the people of India.
The significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement was as follows:
• When people started demonstrating against the colonial rule, the British government got worried about these developments, and they arrested Congress leaders and Abdul Ghaffar Khan. When Mahatma Gandhi himself got arrested, the situation became worse. As a result, police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations, and all the other symbols related to British rule was damaged by the industrial workers in Sholapur. Women and children were also beaten up. However, to stop the movement, on 5 March 1931, Gandhiji and Irwin signed a pact which allowed them to participate in the Round Table Conference in London and also released the political prisoners.
• Rich peasants communities like Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were worried about the trade depression and falling prices. They didn’t have the capacity to pay the government’s revenue demand. When the government refused to cooperate, they revolted. Because of this situation, rich peasants united and organised their communities to support the Civil Disobedience Movement. Moreover, they also made other people participate in this movement.
• There was also the time when business class people came together to support this movement. Well-Known industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla was against the control which was established by the Britishers over the Indian economy. Their motive was that industries should flourish without any restrictions.
• Workers came together to support the movement by boycotting foreign goods and were also against the low wages and poor working conditions.
• One of the most important significance of the Civil-disobedience movement was that a large number of women participated in this movement. Thousands of women gathered to listen to him during Dandi march. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Women in the urban areas were from the high caste families, and in rural areas, they were from rich peasant households. They started considering that it is their responsibility to provide service to the nation.
All this shows that the civil-disobedience movement brought people together and made them put their demand against the British rule.
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