Describe the inte
a. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is situated to the extreme north of our India.
b. It was bestowed with the special status under Article 370 of Indian Constitution.
c. This region has three division namely- Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh.
d. The main region of conflict and violence historically has been Kashmir valley. This region is mainly populated by Muslim Kashmiris.
e. There are basically three prominent causes which have led to the unrest in Jammu & Kashmir. Let’s look at them separately-
(ii) External factors – Claims by Pakistan
i. Due to mishandling of the border management by the colonial forces, India and Pakistan engaged in decades-long dispute with respect to Kashmir.
ii. Since Kashmir was also one of the princely states, Maharaj Hari Singh has to sign Instrument of Accession with the Indian government before it can ask it for help against Pakistani tribesman who attacked Kashmir immediately after independence.
iii. Later on due to the misguided policies by the Indian leadership of taking the matter to UN made the problem even worse, since it gave an opportunity to Pakistan to bring in the third party into what was essentially a bilateral dispute.
iv. Vested interests and Pakistani regime has always tried to demand a plebiscite but also keeps disturbing the demographics in the region so that it can get favourable results.
(iii) Internal factors
i. Article 370 – This article along with Article 35 has become a focal point of violence, because it was with the help of these two articles that the corrupt and dynastic leaders in Kashmir radicalised the youth and propelled separatism in their minds.
ii. The constant presence of military to tackle the cross-border terrorists and infiltrators has a psychological impact on the minds of the people and thus they cannot fully participate in the developmental path like other states
iii. There were only very few instances in the past when this region saw a stable government. All the other times, this land was a ground for the party in power to play political games. .
iv. The absence of any political or democratic institution in this region and the intimidation faced by the grassroots governing bodies has made the people completely lose their faith in democracy.
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