Q. 19

Describe the impo

Answer :

The method to capture and store rainwater for various uses is called rainwater harvesting. It is a low cost and eco friendly technique for preservation of water by capturing the rain water and storing it in borewells, pits and wells and is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers. It is a method that has been practised traditionally by different communities all over the world. It is practiced through the following methods –

• Harvesting through watershed management

• Harvesting through lakes (Eris)

• Harvesting through service wells

• Harvesting through recharge wells

In arid areas like Rajasthan rainwater harvesting structures locally known as Kund or Tanka (a covered underground tank) are constructed near or in the house or village to store harvested rainwater. In the Himalayan region ‘kuls’ or ‘guls’ which are water diversion channels are built for agricultural purposes. Both these methods contribute towards the conservation of water resources in the following manner –

• Increases water availability

• Checks the declining groundwater table by reducing the community’s dependence on it

• Improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants, like fluoride and nitrates

• Prevents soil erosion, and flooding

• Arrests salt water intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers

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