Q. 225.0( 1 Vote )

Describe the fact

Answer :

A loose confederation of 15 republics with Russia as the leader formed the erstwhile Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). With a strong control over global politics from 1922 to 199, USSR was a strong bloc. But it disintegrated into smaller units because of reasons like economic weakness, political un-accountability, the rise of nationalism and political support for reforms that enabled the common people to compete with the western world. The disintegration led to the emergence of new countries like Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia and Uzbekistan. The main factors behind the disintegration of USSR are as follows –


• Economic Weakness – The citizens of USSR were dissatisfied with the weak economy present during that time. The economic weakness was mostly due to spending on the military, maintenance of satellite states in Eastern Europe along with the Central Asian Republics. There was also a huge shortage of consumer goods leading to general poverty.


• Political Un-accountability – The single-party rule that existed in USSR for nearly 70 years had turned authoritarian. The system was widely corrupted and there was an inherent lack of transparency. Gorbachev decided to allow elections with a multi-party system and create a presidency for the Soviet Union. This eventually destabilized Communist control and contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union as it began a slow process of democratization.


• Gorbachev’s reforms – The reforms brought about freedom which made the public demand for more and it was difficult to control.


• Rise of nationalism – The most important and immediate cause of the disintegration of the USSR was a rise of nationalism among countries like Russia, Baltic republics, Ukraine, Georgia etc.


The disintegration of USSR not only led to total upheaval in the internal politics of the newly emerged countries but also led to several profound consequences on world politics.


Or


A group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc forms the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961. After the second World War, the world was bi-polar with two superpowers vying to hold the maximum authority. But several countries like India, Indonesia etc at that point of time had just gained their independence from colonial rule and refused to align with either of the super powers leading to NAM. Critics often try to downplay the relevance of NAM in the modern day as the world is no longer bi-polar but uni-polar. But in reality, as long as sovereign states exist, smaller countries will always resort to non-alignment as a foreign policy. NAM which initially had a membership of 25 states in 1961 has around 118 countries under it in todays’ scenario which goes on to prove its relevance.


NAM has demanded complete elimination of all nuclear weapons and is also opposed to the treaties on WMD (Weapon of Mass Destructions) which were not universal in nature. Its aim is for the protection of the smaller non-nuclear countries.


It also pursues equality in world affairs through pooling the diplomatic resources of Third World states in international forums. Owing to their numerical strength, NAM has been able to keep Third World issues on the agenda in most UN forums and agencies.


Considering how, WTO rules and procedures have failed to provide adequate economic gains to the Third World, the most important role for NAM today lies in framing an economic agenda which would promote a fair international economic order.


In other words. As long as any form of exploitation exists in the world, NAM would always be relevant as it would allow the smaller nations a rational, democratic, equitable and non-exploitative inter-states relation.


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