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Jammu and Kashmir is an Indian state situated in the extreme north of the nation. It has been granted special status by Article 370 of the Indian Constitution.

The state comprises of three regions namely Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh. The main region of Kashmir is Kashmir valley, the people here are Kashmiri and mostly Muslim.

After partition India and Pakistan both claimed over Pakistan. But the Maharaja of Kashmir signed Instrument of Accession with the government of India. Since then problems have been hovering over the Kashmir region.

The external disputes are :

a. Pakistan claims that Kashmir is under its territory.

b. It has been regularly sending infiltrators and has been invading. With that effect one part of the state is captured by Pakistan. This region is named as Azad Kashmir by Pakistan.

Internal disputes:

a. Kashmir has been given special status under Art 370, this gives the state special provisions of autonomy differing from rest of the states of India.

b. There have been differences in demands in the region.

c. One group confers that special status does not give full integration of the state of India. They demand revocation of Art 370.

d. Another group, mainly Kashmiris, they demand more autonomy, a plebiscite in the region.

The disputes both internally and externally have kept the state in the situation of tensions and have made the administration fragile.


Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in 1991 by LTTE a Sri Lankan Tamil linked militant organization.

After his death major developments that occurred were :

a. There was wide acceptance of new economic policies. There were apprehensions that these policies would bring prosperity in the country.

b. Social and political claims of the backward class were accepted. It was widely believed that these people shared inadequate education and powers in the country. Hence reservation granted in education and employment.

c. State level parties were not just limited to their respective status rather emerged politically at national front.

d. The parties agenda were now more pragmatic than idealistic.

The above developments were catered the need of the country.

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