Migration in the simplest terms is the movement of people from one place to another. it arises because of uneven distribution of opportunities over space. It is often undertaken to access better economic opportunities and higher regions of safety. Thus, this movement has a profound effect on the source region as well as the destination area. The effects can be categorized under economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms. The economic consequences are as follows –
• Remittance sent by migrants’ act in a beneficial manner in the source region.
• International migrants send in remittances in the form of foreign exchange. This makes them one of the major sources of foreign exchange. India received around US$ 11 billion in 2002 as remittances from international migrants specifically from the states of Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
• The remittances sent in by internal migrants by contrast are meagre.
• Though internal remittances are low they play an important role in the growth of local economy of the migrant source region. It is utilized for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.
• Several national economic policies like Green Revolution have been successful because of migration of the rural poor from the states of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh etc.
• Metropolitan areas of India face a lot of unregulated migration which negatively impacts their economic condition.
• Development of slums and urban sprawls in cities and the industrially developed states of Maharashtra, Gujrat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu etc have created negative conditions in said areas.
The two bases on which migration is enumerated in the Census of India are as follows –
a) By place of birth – When the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration, it is called life-time migrant.
b) By place of residence – when the last place of residence is different than the place of enumeration, it is called as migrant by place of last residence.
Streams of migration refer to the movement that occurs between the source and destination of migration. It can be internal (within a country) or external (outside a country) in nature. Internal migration occurs when the movement is restricted within the boundaries of a country. In India, internal migration is of four types –
a) rural to rural (R-R) – this type of internal migration occurs when people move from one rural area to another. it is generally motivated due to economic reasons. Other reasons include concerns for safety and marriage where women move to their husband’s residential village.
b) rural to urban (R-U) – this type of internal migration occurs when rural people move to urban areas in search of jobs and better conditions of living. Men often are the bulk candidates in this movement and leads to a skewed gender ratio in urban areas. It also negatively impacts urban areas as it causes the growth of slums and urban sprawls.
c) urban to urban (U-U) – this type of internal migration is mostly observed among the white-collar workers who move from one city to another because of transfer in their jobs.
d) urban to rural (U-R) – this is the rarest type of internal migration. Few people move out from cities and they mostly comprise of retired personnel’s who go back to their ancestral villages. In recent times, many people move away from congested urban areas to cleaner areas outside the city causing suburbanisation. This trend is causing the growth of urban agglomerations, where the surrounding rural areas are being incorporated within the city limits.
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