Q. 224.3( 3 Votes )

Describe the conditions which lead to technological and institutional reforms in India.

OR

Mention the major crops that come under millets. State the geographical conditions required for their cultivation along with the areas where they are grown.

Answer :

India was facing many issues in the agricultural sector. A few of them are highlighted below:


1. The Britishers had introduced the Zamindari system. This implied that every owner or zamindar had complete control over land. The farmers worked on it, and the ultimate benefits were taken by the zamindars. The actual tillers of the soil were left without much crop, money and were helpless in this situation.


2. The average size of holdings was very small. It was more prominent in densely populated areas such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab etc. Subdivision and fragmentation of holdings led to low agricultural productivity.


3. Good quality seeds were not distributed. The farmers had to pay an exorbitant amount to get access to these better seeds.


4. Deletion and lack of replenishment of the soil was another issue. Manure and fertilizers were not provided to the farmers, which could have helped them.


5. In India, rainfall is uncertain and irregular. This implies that adequate water is not available for the crops.


6. Maximum work was done by the manual labour. Although, other countries were using advanced machinery in the agriculture sector.


7. Large areas of land were suffered from soil erosion through water and wind.


8. The lack of marketing facility implied that the workers had to be depended upon the middlemen to transfer their goods to the market areas.


9. There were no storage facilities in rural areas. The farmers had to sell their produce immediately after harvesting it at the current price was very low.


10. Many villages were not connected with proper roads. The lack of cheap and efficient means created further problems to take their crops to the market.


11. The farmers did not have adequate capital to support their requirements. They had to resort to money lenders who charged a high rate of interest and exploited them.


All such issues prevailing in the economy led to the introduction of various technological and institutional reforms made in India in the agricultural field are:


1. Land reforms: Consolidation of holdings, the abolition of zamindari system etc


2. Agricultural reforms: Green revolution and White revolution


3. The issue of Kisan credit cards, Personal accident insurance scheme


4. Weather bulletin for farmers.


5. Provision of crop insurance for farmers in case of drought, flood, etc


6. Provision of HYV seeds, manures, fertilisers, insecticide and pesticide.


7. Providing storage facility and transport facility.


OR


The major crops that come under millets are Jowar, Bajra, and Ragi.


The geographical conditions required for their cultivation are mentioned below:


A. JOWAR: A Rainfed crop growing in moist areas. This hardly needs irrigation. It requires moderate rainfall of 30-100cms and high temperatures ranging from 20 to 32°C. However, excessive moisture and continuous drought are harmful to this crop. Well-drained light soils are ideal for its cultivation. It is the third most important crop regarding production. It is cultivated in semi-arid areas of central and south areas. It is sown as a kharif crop in north India, but in south India, it is sown both as rabi and kharif crop. India is the largest producer of jowar. Maharashtra is the leading producer followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.


B. BAJRA: It required a dry and warm climate. The rainfall must be between 45cm and temperature ranging between 25 to 30°C. It grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.


Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Haryana.,


C. RAGI: Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro-nutrients, and roughage. It grows well in dry regions on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of Ragi followed by Tamil Nadu. Other states important for the production of ragi are Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.


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