Q. 254.3( 29 Votes )
The outbreak of revolutionary protest in France was a culmination of social, political, economic and intellectual factors. The immediate cause was as below:
Philosophers like Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu played a significant role.
Forced by financial bankruptcy, Louis XVI was compelled to call an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes in 1789.
This time, voting method was not accepted by the third estate. They demanded that each member should have one vote. This controversy led to agitation among the people which became the immediate cause of the French Revolution.
i. Social causes or social conditions French society was divided into three estates.
The First state and the second estate belonged to the privileged section. The first estate consisted of the clergy and the second estate comprised the nobility. These two estates were exempt from payment of state taxes. The third estate consisted of the lower and middle classes. The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members but they were who bore the burden of the taxes. They did not have any political rights and social status.
ii. Political causes Louis XVI, the King of France, was an autocratic, inefficient ruler who led a luxurious life with his queen Marie Antoinette. People of France became tired of this rotten system of administration and wanted a change. They wanted to have their different rights.
iii. Economic causes The treasury of the king was empty on account of long wars, involvement in the American War of Independence, luxurious living of the king and faulty system of taxation. The state also undergone to a great debt.
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