1. Foundational Challenge – This challenge is faced in making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. This process involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, protecting the country from military rule and establishing a sovereign and functional state.
2. Challenge of expansion – This challenge involves the implementation of the basic principle of democratic government across regions, different social groups and institutions. This challenge also includes ensuring greater power to local governments, the inclusion of women and minority groups and extending the federal principle to all units. Thus, it puts forward the idea of including maximum decisions within democratic control. Countries like India and the USA face this challenge.
3. Deepening of democracy – This challenge is faced by every democracy in some form or another. It involves the strengthening of democratic institutions and practices in order to increase people’s participation and control. In order to do so, it may involve, for example, attempts to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions. Since ordinary people have different expectations from democracy, this challenge takes different meanings and expectations in different countries.
NOTE – Although democracy is considered to be the best form of governing a society, it also has certain problems associated with it. The challenges faced by democracy tend to highlight these problems. Various methods and ways are used by different countries in handling these problems which are unique to their respective societies.
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