Q. 635.0( 5 Votes )

Describe hybridisation in the case of PCl5 and SF6. The axial bonds are longer as compared to equatorial bonds in PCl5 whereas in SF6 both axial bonds and equatorial bonds have the same bond length. Explain.

Answer :

The hybridization of the P in PCl5 is sp3d and the hybridization of the S in SF6 is sp3d2.

PCl5 has trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In this case, the axial bonds are slightly longer than the equatorial bonds. This is because the axial bonds experience greater repulsion from other bonds than the equatorial bonds.


SF6 has an octahedral structure. In this case, all the bonds have the same length since all bonds experience similar repulsion from other bonds.


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PREVIOUSBriefly describe the valence bond theory of covalent bond formation by taking an example of hydrogen. How can you interpret energy changes taking place in the formation of dihydrogen?NEXT(i)Discuss the concept of hybridization. What are its different types in a carbon atom?(ii) What is the type of hybridisation of carbon atoms marked with star.Comprehension given below is followed by some multiple choice questions. Each question has one correct option. Choose the correct option.Molecular orbitals are formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals. Two atomic orbitals combine to form two molecular orbitals called bonding molecular orbital (BMO) and anti bonding molecular orbital (ABMO). Energy of anti bonding orbital is raised above the parent atomic orbitals that have combined and the energy of the bonding orbital is lowered than the parent atomic orbitals. Energies of various molecular orbitals for elements hydrogen to nitrogen increase in the order :σσ < σ *1s < σ2s < (π2px = π2py) < σ2p2 < σ2pz < (π * 2px = π*2py) < σ* 2pz s ( p p) p ( * p * p) * p < and for oxygen and fluorine order of energy of molecular orbitals is given below :σls < σ* 1s < σ2s < σ* 2s < σ2pz < (π2px = π2py) < (π* 2px = π * 2py) < σ* 2pzDifferent atomic orbitals of one atom combine with those atomic orbitals of the second atom which have comparable energies and proper orientation. Further, if the overlapping is head on, the molecular orbital is called ‘Sigma’, (σ) and if the overlap is lateral, the molecular orbital is called ‘pi’, (π). The molecular orbitals are filled with electrons according to the same rules as followed for filling of atomic orbitals. However, the order for filling is not the same for all molecules or their ions. Bond order is one of the most important parameters to compare the strength of bonds.
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