Answer :

The speed and direction of the wind are based on the Coriolis force. This force is generated by Earth's rotation. When winds from in Northern Hemisphere deflected towards the right and the wind of Southern Hemisphere deflected towards left. This is called the Coriolis Effect. There is an attempt to find out the cause of deflection of winds in the following ways:

a. Trade winds- Trade winds blow continuously towards the equatorial low-pressure belt. As these winds blow from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, they are known as northeast trade winds. In the Southern hemisphere, they blow towards the equatorial low and became Southeast Trade winds. The equatorial low-pressure zone where the trade winds from both the hemispheres converge is known as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Trade winds are the product of the Coriolis Effect. In the Northern Hemisphere, the air seems to blow from north to south but Coriolis Effect would deflect the air because earth is rotating at the faster rate in the Equator then in Northern Hemisphere/ Southern Hemisphere. These winds blow from the Northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the Southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. Easterlies or trade winds are the prevailing winds that blow from the east towards the west in polar and tropical regions.


b. Westerlies: Winds blow continuously from the subtropical high-pressure zones to Subpolar low-pressure zones. As the direction of these winds is mostly from the west, they are known as the westerlies. The westerlies are stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. This is due to the vast expanse of oceans in the Southern Hemisphere.


If a moving object is going towards north or south from the equator it will deflect toward the east due to Coriolis force. Westerlies are the prevailing wind that blows from west to east in between 30 to 60 degrees north to south. Similarly, if a moving object is going from north and south towards the equator it deflects to west.


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