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Describe how the

Answer :

The movement of rural women in Andhra Pradesh to protest against alcoholism, mafias and government is called the Anti-arrack movement. It occurred due to the “adult literacy drive” which enabled the local women to complain against the increased consumption of locally brewed alcohol ‘arrack’ by men in their families. It caused an increase in incidents of domestic violence and also had a detrimental effect on the overall rural economy. The movement slowly spread all over the state once the women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives as protests against the arrack consumption and in a bid to enforce the closure of the wine shops.

The Anti Arrack Campaigns on a smaller scale aimed for the prohibition on the sale of arrack. On a larger scale it provided a platform to the women to discuss private issues of domestic violence, dowry, sexual violence etc. The campaigns went on to create social awareness regarding gender equality, women’s rights and the contribution of the women at the social, economic and political level. It allowed women to demand equal representation to women in politics during the nineties which resulted in the 73rd and 74th amendment granting reservations to women in local level political offices.


The North-Eastern states of India are characterized by complex social character, a certain level of economic backwardness when compared to the rest of the country and a sense of isolation because of low levels of connectivity. Weak levels of communication along with a vast and sometimes disputed international border have further contributed to a sensitive political nature in the region. The North-Eastern states of India have three major concerns, namely –

a) Demands for autonomy – During Independence, the entire region was divided into three areas, which were Mizoram, Tripura and the state of Assam. But when the people felt that the government was imposing the Assamese language on them, there was widespread protests and civil unrest. The leaders of the major tribal groups wanted to separate themselves from Assam which finally led to the complete reorganisation of the area which ended by 1972 and with seven different states. But demands for autonomy continue to rise with several communities like the Bodos, Karbis and Dimsas demands for separate states.

b) Secessionist Movements – Several groups demanded separate nations as a matter of principle. The secessionist demands by the Mizo National Front (MNF) resulted in armed conflict between them and the Indian Army. The insurgency lasted for almost two decades and ended in 1986 with a peace agreement between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga (Leader of MNF). Similarly, a section of Naga tribals demanded a separate country since 1951 and this problem is yet to be resolved.

c) Movements against outsiders – Large scale migration through the porous international borders have created problems in these states. The migrants are viewed as competitors on a social, economic and political level. This has taken a political and often violent form of separation in these states.

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