• Hydroelectric power plants are special power plants designed to convert the potential energy of falling water into electricity.
• In these plants, dams are constructed on heights on the river to stop the flow of water.
• This helps in the collection of water in larger reservoirs.
• As the water level rises the kinetic energy of flowing water gets transformed into potential energy (stored at a height).
• The water from the high level in the dam is carried through pipes, to turbines present at the bottom of the dam.
• This rotates the turbines and this in turn products electricity.
• These kinds of dams cannot be constructed everywhere and can be constructed only in hilly areas.
• Large areas of human habitation and agricultural lands are destroyed in the process.
• Large scale deforestation occurs.
• Large eco-systems are destroyed when submerged under the water in dams.
• The trees which get submerged inside the water rot under anaerobic conditions and give rise to large amounts of methane which is a green-house gas.
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