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Describe any thre

Answer :

There are many pressing issues that have to be taken up and solved by global economies. Some problems may be solved by the domestic country. But in today's world, most of the problems have to be solved with the cooperation of all the countries. Some problems are very challenging that they can only be dealt with the cooperation of everyone. Some such problems are:

Protection of resources: The 21st century has seen the complete and relentless exploitation of many natural resources. The exploitation has risen to such levels that some resources are completely exhausted. This includes both non-renewable resources and other natural resources like water, flora and fauna. But this cannot be achieved with the effort of a single country. All the global countries must come together for the conservation and protection of global resources and global commons. Every country should follow sustainable development and conserve resources for future generations.

Global warming: This is the most disastrous phenomenon of the present century that will have tragic consequences for future generations. It is the gradual increase in the atmospheric temperature because of the increase in greenhouse gases by human activities. This can result in a rising in the sea levels, thereby submerging many coastal areas of the world. Even counties who have their domestic policies to control the emission of CFCs and other greenhouse gases they are not spared from its consequences. Thus a global action will be more effective.

• Terrorism: This is the most important conflict in the present generation. It is the violence and conflicts between different groups of people that can result in the deliberate and huge loss of life and property. It can also be connected with the violation of human rights. The groups may be allied to a political or religious framework. The attacks are mainly initiated among civilians. The eradication of terrorism is a pre-requisite for a peaceful world. This can be done only with the coordinated efforts of all the countries.

Sometimes, even though nations identify the need to cooperate to solve these global issues, still there are many hurdles for its proper materialisation. Mostly the countries will not be able to agree on how to cooperate, how to share its costs, how to fairly share the benefits of cooperation and how to ensure that others do not disrupt the agreement.


According to the traditional concept of security and safety, the ultimate threat that a country faces is from military mobilisations. It majorly occurs from other countries. They tend to threaten and risk the authority, freedom and territorial integrity of the country through military action. It will also result in the widespread loss of life and destruction of property. The main components under traditional security are:

• Deterrence: Any country to its utmost limit will avoid conflicts emerging with other countries as it can result in serious loss of life and destruction of property. Also, the result of the conflict may be against the interest of the country. Thus the security policy of the country will be concerned utmost to prevent the occurrence of any conflict. This is called the policy of deterrence.

• Defence: When there a confrontation the government can surrender, prevent the other side from attacking or defend the country. But to the supreme extent, the governments will not choose to surrender. They will try to limit or end the consequences of the war. This is called defence.

• Balance of power: The government will always try to preserve its balance of power. The presence of big and strong neighbouring countries is an indication of the possibility of future conflicts. Thus the countries always try to maintain a positive balance of power with countries, especially with the neighbouring ones with whom they have problems or with those they had fought in the past. This requires the improvement of military, economic, political and technological power.

• Alliance building: It is the formation of a coalition with some states. The coalition will organise their activities and strength to deter or defend against military attack. Mostly they are formal and official with written treaties and agreements. They have a clear idea and understanding of who constitutes their threat. This enables the individual countries in the alliance to have a more strong foundation to prevent or defend a war. Generally, alliances are based on national interests and can change when the national interests change.

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