The six factors which were responsible for the dominance of the Congress Party in India during the first two decades after independence were:
1. Congress was deeply associated with the struggle to gain freedom from the Britishers.
2. The leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was dynamic, charismatic and powerful.
3. It was an organization that was spread all over the country.
4. Congress was an umbrella party for many social groups witch utmost diversity. It had city dwellers, villagers, peasants, and industrialists.
5. It provided for internal opposition.
6. The leadership of the party had expanded from upper-class professional to agricultural-based leaders.
7. It accommodated revolutionary leaders, right, left and centre wing shades as well.
8. The parties which had their constitution were also allowed to exit within Congress.
The two land reforms introduced in free India which were fairly successful were:
1. The country had successfully managed to abolish the evil system of zamindari. Under this system, the zamindar was the owner of the large plots of land and the small farmers worked under them. they were made to work under harsh conditions. A large portion of their share was taken away to be sold in the market at an extremely low price. The farmers were neither able to secure any food grains or money for their produce for their livelihood.
2. Consolidation of land holdings: The land holdings were divided into small and fragmented parts. After Independence, all such lands were joined and given to the actual tillers of the soil and taken away from the zamindars.
The other two land reforms which were much less successful and rarely implemented were:
1. Land ceiling: Land ceiling was imposed on the agricultural lands. It meant that an upper limit or a maximum limit was declared with regard to the size of the land a person can hold.
2. Security: the government aimed at providing security to the tenants working on the land. But in practice, it was not much successful.
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