French Revolutionaries tried to create a sense of collective belonging:
1. The ideas of fatherland (la patrie) and citizen (le citoyen) were spread to bring the notion of a unity community having equal rights and protected by a constitution.
2. A new flag was chosen of tricolour to represent the nation and the royal standard was removed.
3. The Estates General became the National Assembly and its members were elected by a body of active citizens.
4. Hymns started to be composed, oaths taken and martyrs were commemorated to emphasize the idea of a nation.
5. Internal custom duties and dues were removed and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted instead.
Explanation: Various methods were adopted by the revolutionaries to build the collective identity. It was important for the unity required for the nation.
Steps were taken by the French:
1. The French made an elaborate system of irrigation to drain the lands of Mekong delta. The canals and earthworks were built with forced labour mostly.
2. The rice cultivation increased dramatically and two-thirds of the production was exported to the international market.
3. Infrastructural projects were introduced to improvement movement of goods and military garrisons and for better administrative control.
4. A trans-Indo-China rail was begun to connect northern parts of Vietnam with southern parts of China. The final link was in Yunan.
5. A second line was also built through Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh linking Vietnam and Siam.
Explanation: French built all the irrigation technology only for its profit. The infrastructural project also aimed at the French people’s convenience.
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