(i) Crystalline solid
• A crystal or a crystalline solid is a material whose atoms or molecules are arranged in an orderly manner and forming a crystal lattice extending in all directions.
• Examples are diamonds, metals and salts.
(ii) Frenkel Defect
• Frenkel defect also called dislocation defect is a point defect found in crystalline solids.
• This defect takes place when an atom or an ion of smaller size leaves it site, creating a vacancy and occupies an interstitial site elsewhere.
(iii) n-type semiconductor
• N-type semiconductor is also called extrinsic semiconductor which is doped with a pentavalent element having 5 electrons in its valence shell.
• The pentavalent impurities that are commonly used are phosphorous, arsenic, antimony or bismuth.
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