Q. 22

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Answer :

(i) Antacids are used for treatment for acidity and to decrease the over production of acid in the stomach which causes irritation and pain. In severe cases, ulcers are developed in the stomach.

Examples are sodium hydrogencarbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide.

(ii) Antiseptics are the chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces.

Examples are furacine, soframicine, etc. These are not ingested like antibiotics. Commonly used antiseptic, dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol. Iodine is a powerful antiseptic. Its 2-3 per cent solution in alcoholwater mixture is known as tincture of iodine. It is applied on wounds. Iodoform is also used as an antiseptic for wounds. Boric acid in dilute aqueous solution is weak antiseptic for eyes.

(iii) Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, and mild or even severe mental diseases. These relieve anxiety, stress, irritability or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being.

Examples are chlordiazepoxide and meprobamate used for relieving tension. Equanil is used in controlling depression and hypertension.

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