(a) Coagulation: The stability of the lyophobic sols is due to the presence of charge on colloidal particles. If, somehow, the charge is removed, the particles will come nearer to each other to form aggregates (or coagulate) and settle down under the force of gravity. The process of settling down of colloidal particles is called precipitation of the sol or coagulation.
(b) Associated colloids: There are some substances which at low concentrations behave as normal strong electrolytes, but at higher concentrations exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of aggregates. The aggregated particles thus formed are called micelles. These are also known as associated colloids.
(c) Brownian Motion: When colloidal solutions are viewed under a powerful ultra-microscope, the colloidal particles appear to be in a state of continuous zig-zag motion all over the field of view. This motion was first observed by the British botanist, Robert Brown, and is known as Brownian movement. This motion is independent of the nature of the colloid but depends on the size of the particles and viscosity of the solution. Smaller the size and lesser the viscosity, faster is the motion
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