Answer :

(a)


Concept/Formula used:


Kirchhoff’s loop rule:


The sum of potential differences around a loop is zero.


Let the current flowing through the circuit be .



Applying Kirchhoff’s loop rule through the whole loop abcdea,






(b)


Concept/Formula used:


Potential Difference (V) across a resistor of resistance R when current I passes through it is given by Ohm’s law:



The potential difference across R1 is:





(c)


The potential difference across R2 is:





(d)


Let us consider the second circuit.



Applying Kirchhoff’s loop rule through the whole loop abcdea,






The potential difference across R1 is:





The potential difference across R2 is:





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