Answer :

a. The causality behind the sudden changes was understood due to Mutation principle of Hugo de Vries.


Mutation is the sudden and permanent change in the gene or DNA. It causes change in the genetic characters of the individual.


b. The proof for the fact that protein synthesis occurs through translocation was given by George Beadle and Edward Tatum.


Translocation: it is the simultaneous movement of two tRNA molecules together with the mRNA by one codon on the ribosome.


c. Transfer of information from molecule of DNA to mRNA is called as transcription process.


Transcription: it is a process in which mRNA (messenger RNA) is synthesized from a DNA. This process occurs in the nucleus of a cell.


d. Evolution means gradual development.


Evolution is the gradual change from simple to complex over a period of time. Example. Invertebrates evolve to vertebrates.


e. Vestigial organ appendix present in human body is proof of evolution.


Vestigial organs: Those organs which are of no use in our body but our ancestors had use them. Appendix is most known such organ in the human body.


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