Thallophyta are found mostly in water some in fresh, saline water soft and fibre like body due to absence of mechanical and conducting elements and presence of cellulose cell wall.
Bryophytes lack vascular tissue system ,true roots, leaves, stems.
Found on most places still they require water for transfer of sperms for fertilization hence called amphibians of plant kingdom.
C. Spore, Zygote
Pteridophytes have well developed vascular tissues and leaves,
stems, roots but these plants produce neither flowers nor seeds also called seed less vascular cryptograms. Sporophyll leaves have sporangia which produce spores. Formation and fusion of male and female gamete forms zygote this
further produces well differentiated multicellular sporophyte.
Spores are produced within sporangia present on sporophyll,
which are leaves which form compact structures called cones these are male and female. Few species of gymnosperms like pinus have both male and female on same tree but located far apart this can be called dioecious and few species of cycas where male and female are produced on different plant can be termed as
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