Q. 215.0( 1 Vote )
India is a land of diversity. There is a variety of culture, class, traditions, ideologies, religions and social groups. Competing interests do not always reflect a clear class divide in India because:
1. The constitution of India has entitled India as a “secular” country which means treating all religions equally. There are separate groups living together on the same land.
2. For example, when it comes to the well being of the people living in the region of a factory which emits toxic gases and waste, the constitution has laid down certain rules and regulations. The factory would be shut down as per the standards of the constitution. However, there is a flipside of this. Closing down the factory will render people without a job.
3. Another example is of the poverty alleviation programmes and the employment generation programmes like “MNREGA”.
4. The constituent assembly was fully aware of this complexity and plurality but was intent on securing g social justice as a guarantee.
The Panchayati Raj system is associated with the grass-roots democracy. Many tribal areas have rich tradition if grass-root democratic functioning. The following are the examples:
1. All the three major ethnic tribal groups, namely, the Khasis, Jaintias, and the Garos in Meghalaya have their own traditional political institutions that have existed for hundreds of years.
2. These institutions were fairly well developed and functioning quite well. There were three tiers such as village level, clan level, and state level.
3. In the traditional political system of the Khasis, each clan has its own council called Durbar Kur which was presided over by the village/clan headman.
Though there is a long tradition of such democracy that lie outside the provisions of the 73rd amendment act of the Indian constitution. This is because of the reluctance on the part of the policymakers who do not want to interfere in the matters of tribal population. Tribal institutions are not only marked by the open intolerance to women but also the process of social change has also introduced sharp distortions in the system making it difficult to identify which is traditional and which is not.
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