Q. 354.2( 6 Votes )

Compare the general characteristics of the first series of transition metals with those of the second and third series metals in the respective vertical columns. Give special emphasis on the following points:

(i) Electronic configuration

(ii) Oxidation states

(iii) Ionisation enthalpies

(iv) Atomic sizes

Answer :

(i) Electronic configuration:


In the first transition series, 3d orbitals are progressively filled while in the second and third transition series, 4d and 5d orbitals are filled. However the first series shows only two exceptions Cr and Cu, both have a single electron in the 4s orbital ( 3d5 4s1, 3d10 4s1) but the second series shows more exceptions. Similarly, third series elements show exceptions. Thus in the same vertical column, in a number of series, the electronic configuration of the three series are not similar at all.


(ii) Oxidation states:


The number of oxidation states shown by the elements in the middle of each series is maximum and minimum at the extreme ends. However, the first row elements differ from the second and third-row elements in the fact that for all the first row elements, +2 and +3 states are important. For second and third row elements, higher oxidation states are more important than those of the first row elements.


(iii) Ionisation enthalpies:


The first ionization enthalpies in each series generally increase gradually as we move from left to right through some exceptions are observed in each series. The first ionization enthalpies of some elements in the second (4d) series are higher while some of them have a lower value than the elements of 3d series in the same vertical column.


However the first ionization enthalpies of third (5d) series are higher than those of 3d and 4d series. This is because of weak shielding of nucleus by 4f electrons in the 5d series


(iv) Atomic sizes:


In general, ions of the same charge or atoms in a given series show progressively decrease in radius with increasing atomic number though the decrease is quite small. But the size of the atoms of the 4d series is larger than the corresponding elements of the 3d series whereas those of corresponding elements of the 5d series are nearly the same as those of4d series because of Lanthanoid contraction


Note: Lanthanoid contraction is the regular decrease (contraction) in the atomic and ionic radii of lanthanoids with increasing atomic number


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