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Mode of pollination in Vallisneria and Eichhornia is water pollination. Here water is required for the transport of male gametes and fertilization.
In Eichhornia (water hyacinth), the flower emerges above the level of water and is pollinated by insects or wind as in most of the land plants.
In Vallisneria, the female flower reaches the surface of water by the long stalk, and male flowers or pollen grains are released on to the surface of the water. They are then carried by water currents; some eventually fall on the stigma of their female flowers and thereby getting pollinated.
In water pollinated species, pollen grains are protected from wetting by a mucilaginous covering.
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