Q. 23

Burning on large

Answer :

(a) Industries that heavily contribute to air pollutions are as follows:

- Fertilizers and chemical industries: This industry makes use of various chemicals as raw materials. The solid waste is also very dangerous because it may contain heavy metals as well as high concentration of poisonous chemicals. They emit toxic smoke and generate large amounts of toxic effluents. These toxic effluents are responsible for massive killing of fish and marine animals in oceans, rivers and lakes. They also cause eutrophication of water bodies and reduce farm yields in the nearby fields.

- Tannery industries: This industry release waste water with high COD, BOD and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration. This pollution is the outcome of highly polluting chrome tanning manufacturing process.

- Pesticides Industries: Pesticides either contaminate the water by phosphate or chloride along with increase of BOD, COD, Sulphates and nitrates. The dangerous pesticides such as DDT, aldrin, dialdrin, hexachor benzene etc. are harmful for the aquatic life and human beings. Indiscriminate of fertilizer and pesticides have damaged the environment with lethal poisons.

(b) PM 2•5 or less said to be extremely harmful for human health because these fine particulates can be inhaled deep into the lungs and can cause breathing and respiratory symptoms, irritation, inflammations and damage to the lungs and premature deaths.

PM means particulate matter or particle pollution is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets present in the atmosphere.

(c) Ways to handle agricultural waste are as follows:

- Agricultural wastes from fruit and vegetables should be collected and used as domestic wastes.

- The other wastes should be transported to decomposed site by trucks, trailers, carts.

- The agricultural waste which is of no use should be directly disposed to sanitary land.

- Organic matter agricultural waste should be decomposed through biological process and is converted into humus.

- The agricultural waste should be free of dirt and soil. So that when burnt should produce minimum smoke.

- Agricultural waste need to burn in incineration.

- Agricultural waste should be disposed by burial method.

- From incineration air pollution is reduced and from land filling water pollution is reduced.

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