Answer :

Difference between socialist parties and communist party:

a. The socialist believed in the ideology of democratic socialism whereas the communist party worked mainly within the fold of the congress party.


b. The socialist believed in peaceful constitutional methods, while communist party believed in peaceful as well as violent methods.


c. The Socialist criticized the congress for favouring capitalist and landlord and ignoring the working class and farmers whereas the communist party believed in the welfare of the workers and the peasants.


Difference between Bhartiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party:


a. Bhartiya Jana Sangh believed in the ideology of the ‘one party, one nation, one culture and one national ideal’: on the other hand, the Swatantra party believed in the equality of opportunity for all people without any distinction of religion, caste, class, race, etc.


b. Bhartiya Jana Sang stands for the nationalism of basic and defence industries but it does not favour the policies of taking more and more industries under state ownership and control because it believes that this tendencies is harmful both for democracy and economic development. Swatantra Party stands for the principle of maximum freedom for the individual and minimum interference by the state.


c. Jana Sangh favours to follow the policy of Non-Alignment with the two power blocs as also of Non-involvement in the international affairs not directly affecting India. Swatantra Party was critical of the policy of Non-Alignment and advocated close ties with the USA.


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