Q. 3

Briefly describe the followings:

a. Anaemia

b. Angina Pectoris

c. Atherosclerosis

d. Hypertension

e. Heart failure

f. Erythroblastosis foetalis

Answer :

a. Anaemia:It is a disorder that occurs due to decreased number of RBC’s or lesser amount of haemoglobin than the normal value.It might be caused due to excessive loss of blood, destruction of RBC’s etc.


b. Angina Pectoris: It is caused when adequate oxygen does not reach the heart muscles leading to chest pain and discomfort.


c. Atherosclerosis: It is the condition in which build-up of cholesterol, fats takes place in the wall of the artery. This causes decreased size of the lumen hence decreased flow of blood towards the heart takes place. It is also known as Coronary Artery Disease.


d. Hypertension: It is the condition in which there is a constant increase in the normal blood pressure, which is 120/80 mm Hg. It affects all the vital organs like heart, kidney and brain etc. Blood pressure equal to or above 140/90 mm Hg is considered hypertension. It may be caused due to stress, high sodium intake or heart related problems.


e. Heart failure: It is the condition in which heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s requirement. It’s main symptom is congestion of the lungs. It may occur due to weakening of the heart muscles or due to any other defects.


f. Erythroblastosis foetal is : In this condition there is a destruction of foetal RBC’s due to an incompatibility between the mother and foetus’s Rh factor or Rhseus Monkey factor. This may lead to death or severe Anaemia of the foetus


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