Fundamental Rights of India | List of Six Fundamental Rights
Know what are fundamental rights and how many fundamental rights are there in Indian constitution.
As per the Indian constitution, the people of India can exercise their fundamental rights and can move the court if any of their rights are taken away. The difference between ordinary law and a fundamental right is that the former can be changed by the legislature whereas a fundamental right can only be changed by amending the constitution.
In this article, we will study the six fundamental rights of India contained in the constitution. Judiciary is responsible to safeguard these fundamental rights granted to the people of India. The other two branches of government, the executive and the legislature cannot take actions that violate the citizens’ rights.
Let us now take a closer look at the list of fundamental rights of India in detail below.
List of Fundamental Rights of India
1. Right to Equality
Right to equality ensures that no one is above the law and discriminated based on caste, religion, gender, social status, etc. Each citizen is allowed to access public places like shops, parks, malls, and places of worship, to name a few.
Read the brief explanation about the right to equality here.
- Equal protection of laws
- Strict action against bodies discriminating any citizen of India on the grounds of religion, caste, gender, race or place of birth.
- Equal access to public places like parks, places of entertainment, hotels, shops, etc.
- Abolition of untouchability and titles
2. Right to Freedom
In a democratic country like India, both “right to equality” and “right to freedom” is essential for the smooth functioning of democracy. This right ensures that each citizen has freedom of expression, thought, and action. However, people should take care that they are not threatening the freedom of others or endangering the law to satisfy their desires.
Study the brief explanation about “right to freedom” below.
- Every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression, form associations, move freely throughout the territory of India, reside and settle in any part of India.
- Right to education
- Right to life and personal liberty
- Protection against arrest and detention in legal issues
3. Right against Exploitation
Our country has a huge population of illiterate and underprivileged people who get exploited by their fellow human beings. Some people in search of food are left with no option but to work as slaves or work without pay. Both of these actions are prohibited under the Indian constitution.
Below are the prohibited actions related to exploitation under the Indian constitution.
- Prohibition of human trafficking and forced labour
- Ban on child labour in hazardous conditions
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
The right to follow any religion is considered as a hallmark of democracy. Earlier, the rulers of different countries did not allow people to practice the religion of their choice. After the constitution was laid, people started following the religion of their choice.
- Freedom to handle religious issues
- Liberty to practice any profession or religion
- Freedom to follow religious instructions
- Freedom to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion
5. Cultural and Educational Rights
The Indian constitution supports the idea that “strength lies in diversity”. In our country, it is not compulsory that minority groups have to adopt the culture of the majority. The constitution ensures that minority groups can establish their own educational institutions without facing any discrimination.
Below are the key pointers that are mentioned in the constitution of India.
- Liberty to set up educational institutions
- Safeguards language and culture of minorities
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies
Dr Ambedkar adjudged “right to constitutional remedies” as heart and soul of the constitution. This right enables the citizens of India to move the court if any of their fundamental rights mentioned above are taken away.
Go through the highlights of “right to constitutional remedies” here.
- Right to access the court to issues orders for enforcement of rights
These were the six fundamental rights that allow people to lead their lives effectively in India. However, these rights are not absolute; the government of India can impose restrictions on the exercise of our fundamental rights.
Frequently Asked Questions
- What is Article 21-A?
Article 21-A was incorporated into the constitution of India by the 86th amendment act in 2002. This act came into force on April 1, 2010. This amendment ensured free and compulsory education for all children falling in the age group of 6-14 years.
- What do you mean by “Right to Constitutional Remedies”?
According to the Indian constitution, any citizen who feels that any of his/her fundamental rights is taken away can move the court and demand enforcement of rights.
- What do you mean by “Rights against exploitation”?
The constitution ensures the prohibition of human trafficking and forced labour. Any citizen who is found treating his/her fellow human beings as slaves or making them work in hazardous conditions will be punished severely. It also prohibits child labour in hazardous conditions.