Answer the follow
(a) The British Government passed the ‘Rowlatt Act’ in order to avoid any form of perceived threats from the Indian national movement. Initially, a committee was appointed by the British government to look into the discontent among Indians regarding the administration of the British in India. Under the chairmanship of the English judge, Rowlatt, this committee passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 which authorized the government to arrest any Indian without any inquiry or trial.
(b) In the year 1922, Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das formed the Swaraj party within the Indian National Congress. They intended to contest in that year’s elections to the central legislative assembly, so as to obstruct the British government’s unjust practices and rules. Many candidates of the Swaraj party got elected to the Central Legislative Assembly and the Provincial Legislative Councils in the 1923 elections. They got some important resolutions passed in the legislative assembly like the establishment of a fully responsible government for India, convening of a round table conference to resolve the problems of Indians etc.
(c) The Sultan of Turkey was treated as the Khalif or the leader by Muslims all across the world. After the First World War, an insulting treaty was imposed on Turkey which led to the disintegration of Turkey and losing the Sultan’s authority. So the Indian Muslims started the Khilafat movement in support of the Sultan.
(d) The objective of dominion status was not acceptable to many of the younger generation Indian National Congress members. So, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Subash Chandra Bose who were the leaders of the younger generation of Congress, demanded Poorna Swaraj or complete independence from the British rule. Due to this influence of the young leaders, the Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed in the Lahore session of 1929.
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