(a) The episode of Champaran proved to be a turning point in India’s freedom struggle. It was initiated because of the resoluteness of Rajkumar Shukla from Champaran. He followed Gandhiji everywhere to convey his problem when finally he got the opportunity to meet him at the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress. He informed him about the condition of indigo sharecroppers there and insisted him to accompany him. On reaching Champaran, Gandhiji came to know that the estates were held by Englishmen who forced the Indians to work as tenants and pay 15% of their land as rent. Gandhiji negotiated with the Britishers who agreed to return 25% of the money. Through this the farmers realised that they had rights and learned to fight for it. The farmers got control over their lands while the Britishers lost control. Following this Gandhiji took steps to remove the social and economic backwardness of the region.
(b) The peddler went to the crofter’s place and when he was away from home he stole the crofter’s money and ran into the woods. He decided not to walk towards the highway because if the crofter followed him back then he would prefer the same road. He started walking into the woods but while walking he found himself trapped within the forest as he couldn’t go back and didn’t even know the road. After walking for a while, he realised that he was walking around in the same way. At this point he realised that he had fallen into a rattrap. He calls the world a rattrap which sets baits for people in the form of riches, joys, food, clothes etc. similar how bait is set for trapping a mouse in the form of cheese and pork. He realises how happy he was when he entered the woods with the 30 kronors only to realise that it was his turn to fall in the trap of this world.
(c) The story ‘the Last Lesson’ shows how the people suddenly realise how precious their language was them. It was the day when they were informed that they were going to be taught Prussian from the next day because their districts of Alsace and Lorraine had been lost to them. They realised that they did not have a hold over language because they had never taken it seriously. The village elders had also come to class that day to show respect towards their language. M.Hamel told everyone that language is the key to freedom and that French was the most beautiful, clearest and logical language in the world. He took the blame on himself and said that he had been ignorant at times and let his students to water his flowers or call off classes when he wanted to go for fishing. He was dressed in the outfit which he wore on special occasions and ended the class by writing ‘Vive la France’ on the board which means long live France.
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