Answer :

The revolt of 1857, also called the First War of Indian Independence, was caused by several immediate and persistent factors:


MISERIES OF THE SEPOYS


1. The Indian soldiers under British recruitment had faced poor salaries and massive abuse at the hands of British officers.


2. The British tried to hurt the religious sentiments of Indian soldiers, as the new cartridges given to these officers were lined with the fat of cow and pigs. The soldiers who refused to use these cartridges were punished by the British


3. Mangal Pandey, who refused to use these new cartridges, was abused and ultimately hanged to death, for his denials.


DISSATISFACTION OF THE KINGS


The kings had faced the wrath of the British in the form of Doctrine of Lapse. Several Indian kingdoms were eyeing annexation by the British due to the lack of a male heir. Hence, kings and queens from Jhansi, Gwalior and Meerut also joined the sepoy mutiny.


MISERIES OF FARMERS


Most Indian sepoys had farming backgrounds, and were painfully aware of agrarian crises and land revenue systems that crippled the Indian farmer and caused him to end his own life, the indigo plantations, high taxes, permanent settlement and other policies of the British forced farmers to take to arms.


POVERTY OF THE CRAFTSMEN


Not only the sepoys and rulers, but common people like craftsmen and Indian bankers also joined the revolt. They were supposed to pay high taxes, and in the midst of falling business and decreasing quality of life, they felt ill-at-ease with the British rule.


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