The word Hegemony implies leadership one state/nation. The major reason for US hegemony is its hard power i.e. its strong military regime.
The constraints to this hegemony are:
1. The presidential form of government which has a division of powers between the executive and legislative and the checks and balances control the free flow functioning of the military.
2. The American government has to deal with doubts and scepticism due to the open culture in America.
3. The membership of America in NATO (North Atlantic TREATY ORGANISATION). The treaty has some obligations regarding use of military powers.
India and Pakistan are into frequent disagreements since the country partitioned from India in 1947.
The problems between the nations are:
1. Kashmir issue: This is the major bone of contention. India claims Pakistan to be its integral territory as it was acceded into India, but Pakistan refuses to accept this. The war happened twice during 1965 and 1971, but still, the issue remains unresolved.
2. Pakistan has been always blamed by the Indian government for helping Kashmir militants with arms and rising violence in the region.
3. Strategic issue related to controlling of Siachin Glacier and acquisition of arms. India did the nuclear test from Pokhran and soon after that Pakistan responded by carrying out a nuclear test in Chagai hills.
4. The Pakistani spy agency ISI has been blamed for its involvement into anti India campaigns.
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