Answer :

India has taken up a leading role in the issues that concern our environment and climate at the global level.

a) India signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol, 1997 in 2002. This was done despite the fact that developing nations had been exempted from signing the regulations.

b) India accepts the stance of common but differentiated responsibility for taking serious steps towards a healthier and safer environment.

c) At the G8 meeting in 2005, India pointed out that developing countries have a lower emission rate than the developed nations, and have been historically low carbon-emitting.

d) India negotiates with the world powers through the notion of historical responsibility, enshrined in UNFCCC. Since India had not contributed to greenhouse emissions during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, it should not be forced to take drastic measures to cut its present carbon outputs.

e) Consequently, India is sceptical of recent talks in UNFCCC to levy commitments on rapidly industrializing countries like Brazil, China and India.

f) India has taken several steps to match the international standards for machinery that emits greenhouse gases. For example, National Auto Policy, Energy Conservation Act, Electricity Act etc. are important legislation to conform to international norms.

g) India has one of the largest programs for the development and use of renewable resources.

h) Prior to the review of Rio Earth Summit in 1997, India called for a greater transfer of funds and technologies to developing nations to help them establish renewable energy resources and cut down the use of conventional fuels.


Globalization affects the cultural identities of societies across the globe.


a) Since globalization brings in new ideas and products into the markets, it shapes our perceptions and choices. It influences our dietary choices, lifestyles and wardrobes.

b) Globalization leads to a rise in uniformity amongst cultures, called CULTURAL HOMOGENISATION.

c) This process is not the emergence of global culture, but the imposition of Western choices and ideas on the rest of the world. It is a reflection of the soft power of US hegemony.

d) The world gradually begins to look like the image of the dominant culture- the ‘American dream’-and the smaller countries lose their identities and heritage. This leads to a shrinkage in the world’s cultures and causes the extinction of erstwhile practices and diversities.


a) Cultures are not static and should be willing to accept influences and evolve over time.

b) External influences expand our choices and might not interfere with our traditions.

c) It does not only lead to homogenization of cultures but also helps smaller nations to export their cultures outside their countries, as the cultural exchange is never one-way.

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