Q. 274.5( 2 Votes )

Analyze five deve

Answer :

Rajiv Gandhi had led the Congress Party to a massive victory in the Lok Sabha elections of 1984. As the eighties decade came to a close, Indian politics witnessed five major developments which left a long-lasting impact on the country as a whole.

a) The defeat of the Congress Party in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections marked the end of an era as Congress started losing its dominance in the politics of India.

b) The National Front Government’s decision to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission with respect to reservation of Central Government Jobs for OBCs gave rise to the Mandal Issue. Various parts of the country witnessed violent ‘Anti-Mandal’ protests. Since then, issues regarding reservation has played an important role in Indian politics.

c) New economic policies created the initiation of the structural adjustment programmes. They managed to radically change the direction taken by India regarding economic decisions and policies since Independence. Started by Rajiv Gandhi, down to the recent demonetisation issue, new economic policies have changed the political playing field since then.

d) The demolition of Babri Masjid in December 1992, changed the Indian perspective of nationalism and secularism. It contributed to the rise of the notions regarding ‘Hindutva’ and had caused innumerable internal problems for India as a country.

e) The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 further changed the Indian political scenario. It resulted in a Lok Sabha election in 1991 where Congress re-emerged as the party with the majority vote and P.V. Narasimha Rao became the Prime Minister.


Prime Minister Indira Gandhi recommended to impose emergency to president Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad and the same was declared on the ground of internal disturbances on 25 June 1975 by invoking Article 352 of the constitution. Three reasons behind its declarations are as follows –

(i) In response to a petition filed by Raj Narayan to declare Indira Gandhi’s election invalid, the emergency was proclaimed
(ii) According to the government, the petition was considered as a grave crisis and emergency needed to be declared to bring law and order, restore efficiency and implement pro-poor Welfare Programmes.
(iii) Governmental authority was converted into personalization while power politics also became personalised.

The consequences of emergency have been listed below –

(a) Effects on Civil Liberties of Citizens:

• Preventive detention allowed the government to make mass arrests.

• Habeas Corpus was suspended.

(b) Impact on Relationship between Parliament and Judiciary:

• Emergency resulted in constitutional amendments which included the amendment that declared that the election of Prime Minister, President and Vice - president could not be challenged in court.

• The 42nd Amendment which dealt with topics like duration of legislatures, postponement of elections by one year during an emergency was also passed.

(c) Functioning of Mass Media:

• Freedom of the press was banned and censorship occurred. This led to several leading newspapers like the Indian Express and the Statesman to protest by leaving blank editorial column.

• Public agitations, protests and strikes were also banned.

• Right to move to Court for Restoration of Fundamental Rights along with various fundamental rights were also suspended.

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