Analyse the reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in the first three elections.
The reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in the first three elections:
I. The Congress Party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement.
II. It was the only political party to have an organisation spread all over the country.
III. The Congress Party had the most popular and charismatic leader in Nehru. The party got 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha elections and finished way ahead of any other challenger.
IV. It was already a well-organised party and till other parties could reach up to their level, Congress had already begun with its campaigning. This gave the party ‘first off the blocks’ advantage.
V. By the time the country was independent, the party had spread its wings to the local level.
VI. Congress was a social and ideological forum.
VII. The non-congress votes were divided between different rival parties, it benefited the congress in Elections.
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Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class, and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened.
(a) What is meant by a pressure group?
(b) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
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