Q. 10

Analyse the impact of partition of India on Punjab and Bengal.

Answer :

The impact of India’s partition on Punjab was terrible:

(A) There existed carnage on both sides across the border. Almost complete displacement of Sikhs as well as Hindus occurred from West Punjab towards the East into India and similarly, Punjabi Muslims were also displaced from Indian Punjab towards the West into Pakistan.

(B) There occurred a massacre in Amritsar killing thousands of innocent persons in Punjab while hundreds of women were abducted and raped. Immovable properties were captures and other properties were looted.

(C) Many females killed themselves for the purpose of protecting themselves from being dishonoured by the violent mob/ this complete displacement of Sikh, Hindu and Punjabi-speaking Muslims occurred in a comparatively short period between the years 1946 and 1948.

Bengal’s circumstances were more or less similar but the procedure of migration tended to be more protracted:

(A) There existed no complete displacement of population within Bengal since many Muslims stayed in West Bengal and many Hindus in East Bengal. But in Bengal, persons were also murdered in huge numbers while the women were abducted and raped.

(B) Finally, Bengali Muslims belonging to East Pakistan broke away from Pakistan while creating their own independent nation called Bangladesh in 1971-1972.

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Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Irrigating trees and fields

This is an excerpt from the Baburnama that describes the irrigation devices the emperor observed in Northern India:

The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many thought its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters … For … water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees, water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels …. In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere. In Agra, Chandwar, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket … At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller, and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.

(i) Explain the irrigation technology as observed by the Emperor.

(ii) What was the necessity of irrigation?

(iii) Explain any three factors which are responsible for the expansion of agriculture in India.

History - Board Papers