Q. 285.0( 1 Vote )

Analyse India’s stand on any three environmental issues.

OR

Analyse political consequences of globalization.

Answer :

India plays a vital role among the Asian countries on environmental issues.


India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002, which emphasised to follow the principle common but differentiated responsibility.


The Government of India is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, which makes India to have one of the largest renewable energy programmers in the world.


The Government of India is also participating in global efforts through a number of programmes like National Auto Fuel Policy, Electricity Act 2003 etc.


OR


Globalisation has deep and wide impact on every sector of economy and section of society in almost every country. Some of the ways it has affected the political field of them are as follows:


1) Penetration of Global/Outreach of Local Entities: Global state and non-state actors are increasingly penetrating those domains, which were henceforth exclusively reserved for the domestic state machinery. Not only interfere in the policy formulation but also are now acting direct through their nongovernmental organizations in domestic policy implementation. Centres of actual power and decision-making are shifting from local to global level with the outreach of domestic interests groups to their sympathizers in international organizations, multinational corporations and those in the governments of global powers. This outreach enables them to force their own government to accede to their demands because of economic and political influence of the global players.


2) Globalization of Local/Localization of Global Events: Thanks to social and electronic media, small issues which a decade or so ago could only find place in the back page of a national newspaper become breaking news in major global channels creating advocacy and sympathy movements in different parts of the world. Arab spring started from a small incident but swept the country after country. with the rapidly globalizing world, global issues like environmental degradation, climate change, GMO, etc. which were only discussed in the corridors of power are being debated in the drawing rooms of countries and creating strong advocacy movements among the population.


3) Revolution of Rising Expectations: First Revolution of Rising Expectations followed the start of de-colonisation process in 1950s/60s when citizens of newly independent nation-states expected too much too soon from their inexperienced leaders and bankrupt states. New generations of those old guards now have access to see the lifestyles of the West through media/travel and demand same rights and amenities from their respective ruling elites. However, these states are still struggling with their perennial problems of shortages and solvency, unable to meet their demands. Hence the periodic uprisings in these countries-Colour Revolutions/Arab Spring/Iranian Uprising etc.


4) Clash of Cultural Identities: Two streams going side-by-side-cultural assimilation at elite level and cultural clashes at street level. Domestically, people becoming more conscious of their cultural identities in the face of cultural invasion of Pax Americana. Similarly, those who migrate to Europe/USA try to preserve their identities by living in ethnic enclaves. Their non-acceptance by social classes coupled with state inaction to mainstream them through affirmative action marginalises them. Becoming breeding grounds of dissatisfaction, prompting some to become radicalised, even terrorist. This becomes self-fulfilling prophesy for those who believe in Clash of Civilisation thesis instead of End of History narrative.


5) Conversion of International Borders into Boundaries: International borders of the countries, whether drawn by design or by default, have been changing throughout the history for one reason or other. Peace of Westphalia provided them sanctity but not inviolability-they kept on changing albeit at reduced frequency. Globalization is changing the nature of the sanctity attached to these borders- by dispensing with the strict border controls and allowing hassle-free movement of people from one country to another, governments are themselves converting them into boundaries, rather lines drawn on maps, instead of borders.


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