During the reign of Akbar, many measures were taken in order to make Persian the leading language of the Court.
a. It was given the status of the language of the empire, thus conferring on it, and those who spoke it, high prestige and power. As a result, it was spoken by the king, the royal household, and the elite at court.
b. Persian was also made the language of administration at all levels. Therefore, people like accountants and clerks also had to learn and use it.
c. Mughal chronicles were commissioned to be written in Persian, such as the Akbarnama, or were translated from Turkish into Persian, such as the Babur Nama. Further, Sanskrit texts like the Mahabharata and Ramayana were also translated into Persian.
Through these means we can say that Akbar made a conscious effort to make Persian the leading language of the Court.
The Mughal court was used to forge political alliances and relationships, and to define status and hierarchies. There were many aspects of the King’s court that made it the visible centre of Mughal power:
a. The physical arrangement of the court was made in a way to depict power. Therefore, the centrepiece of the court was the throne, which was meant to depict his function as the sovereign ruler, and also show his status as at the centre of the heart of society.
b. The status of the elite was decided based on their spatial proximity to the king i.e. how close to the king they were seated.
c. The court functioned by strict rules. Once the emperor sat down on the throne, nobody could move or leave the court without permission from the king.
d. Proper forms of etiquette were required in court, which included the forms of address and speech, and courtesies, which were acceptable in court. If these were infringed, the person would be punished on the spot.
e. There were also different forms of salutations to the ruler, based on their status and hierarchy. Deep prostration was a sign of high status, and it was epitomized by rituals such as kissing the ground during the reign of Shah Jahan.
f. There were also protocols that governed the conduct of diplomatic envoys in front of the emperor, such as bowing deeply, kissing the ground, or clasping one’s hands in front of the chest as per Persian custom.
g. The court was also the centre of celebrations on special occasions, such as the accession of a new ruler, Id, etc., where the court was full of life and decorated elaborately.
The above-mentioned pieces of evidence show that the visible centre of Mughal power was the King’s Court.
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