Q. 2

Against whom did the adivasis revolt? In what ways did they demonstrate their anger and protest? Give some examples.

Answer :

The Adivasis revolted against the British rule in India.

They protested in many places. During these protests they would burn down the police station, houses of money lender, posts of the forest department and at times the entire Jungle itself.

A few major revolts are mentioned below:

1. Santhal Revolt: It was led by the Santhals in Jharkhand in 1855-1856. They began robbing and killing the money lenders and zamindars. The declared a free state of their own and decided to fight the British rule. However, due to the lack of advanced machinery as held by the British army, Santhals were unable to withstand on their own. In the end, 15,000 Santhals were killed and the revolt ended.

2, Birsa Munda Revolt: Another revolt was led by Birsa in Jharkhand in late 1800. The Munda adivasi of the Chota Nagpur Plateau thought of Birsa as a God. David against the British rule that had deprived them of their own rights over the forest. The leaders of this rebellion were arrested and Birsa died in 1988.

3. Revolt in Kumaon: In 1921, Kumaon, the peasants did not co-operate with the Forest Department. They did not obey any rules laid by them. They even tried to burn the Jungle down. They refused to do forced labor for the forest department.

Finally the British government decided to make its policies less strict. They even introduced new laws in some areas stating that nobody could purchase the land of the Adivasis except them.

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