Q. 18

“After independen

Answer :

The Government took over the commanding heights of the economy after independence.

1. Defence, mining, transport and communication were the major sectors that the Government had under its control.

2. The Government wanted the industries to spread across different regions, hence some sectors were reserved for the Government whereas others were given for private sectors.

3. Many cities such as Pune, Coimbatore, Vadodara, Rajkot and Faridabad have become major industrial centres of the country.

4. Small scale sectors have started to flourish. The government encouraged small scale sectors by providing financial assistance and wood, paper and ceramics were some of the sectors which were allotted to these small scale industries.

These measures helped the Government achieve financial independence immediately after independence so that it can compete with the other countries in the world market.


The division of labour in the brickyards of South Gujarat was based on age and sex.

a. The brickyards were owned by upper castes such as the Parsis and the Desais. However, the potter clan also inherited land as an extension of their work.

b. Workers usually belonged to the lower classes, such as Dalits. They worked for contractors in groups of nine or eleven.

c. Grown men kneaded and molded the mud to form bricks, while young children carried them to be dried and stacked.

d. The bricks were then carried to the kiln by a gang of women and children. The men fired the kiln and then transported the finished bricks to trucks.

e. From six years of age, children are trained to carry the fresh bricks made by their elders. From the age of nine, the quantity of bricks increases.

Thus people from all ages worked as labourers.

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