the plant shows following adaptations to water scarcity:
1. Succulents such as cacti (Opuntia) and Euphorbia possess thick cuticles which prevents water loss, by cuticular transpiration.
2. In succulents, the stem is flattened, and the function of leaf is performed by stem. In Opuntia, leaves are reduced to spines.
3. Desert plants have special pathways to synthesize food, called CAM (C4 pathway). It enables the stomata to remain closed during the day to reduce the loss of water through transpiration.
4. Absence of broad leaves and abundance of spines further protect desert plants from being eaten by animal consumers.
5. The roots in perennial xerophytes are very deep to absorb ground water.
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