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‘Abdur Razzaq and

Answer :

Abdul Razzaq was an ambassador sent by the ruler of Persia to Calicut in the 15th century. He was greatly impressed by the fortification of the Vijaynagar Empire. The aspects observed by him are as follows:-

I. He mentioned seven lines of forts.

II. The outermost wall linked the hills surrounding the city.

III. The fort was entered through well-guarded gates which linked the city to the major roads. Gateways were distinctive architectural features that often defined the structure to which they regulated access.

IV. The fortification encircled not only the city but also its agriculture hinterlands and forests. Razzaq noted that “between the first, second and the third walls there are cultivated fields, garden and houses”.

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