(a) Alkyl halides are insoluble in water because of their inability to form hydrogen bonds.
Explanation: H-bonds are formed when hydrogen is bonded with highly electronegative atom like F, O or N. In alkyl halides hydrogen is bonded only to carbon which is very less electronegative.
In butan-2-ol the second carbon is an asymmetric one i.e., the carbon is attached to four different groups. For a compound to be optically active there must be asymmetric carbon present. Hence, butan-2-ol is optically active whereas butan-1-ol is not.
(c) Chlorine is an electron withdrawing group, yet it is ortho- , para- directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions because during resonance the electron density is found at ortho- and para- positions only.
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